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Minnesota State University, Mankato
Minnesota State University, Mankato

Knee Evaluation Module

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Determine 6: activity, MOI, location of pain, type of pain, severity of pain, onset of pain, unusual sounds/ sensations, actions that increase & decrease pain, S/S, change in S/S over time, prior injury/ surgery, family history & general medical health


Inspection 1,6:

General: swelling, discoloration, deformity, muscle symmetry/atrophy, gait, swelling (bursal or intra–capsular)

Skin: callus, blisters, discoloration, open wounds, scars& skin infections

Anterior View: patellar alignment, patellar tendon, quadriceps, alignment of femur on tibia ( genu varum & genu valgum) & tibial tuberosity

Medial View: vastus medialis oblique

Lateral View: fibular head, posterior tibial sag & hyperextension (genu recurvatum)

Posterior View: hamstrings & popliteal fossa (cysts)

Postural Assessment:

Gait Assessment:

Knee Palpation Rollover: using internet explorer rollover the images to trace some anatomy of the foot, ankle and low leg

Bony Palpation 1: medial tibial plateau, tibial tubercle, medial femoral condyle, adductor tubercle, lateral tibial plateau, lateral tubercle, lateral femoral condyle, lateral femoral epicondyle, head of fibula, trochlear groove, superior pole of patella, inferior pole of patella, medial patellar border & lateral patellar border

Soft Tissue Palpation 1:

Zone 1 (Anterior Aspect): quadriceps muscle/tendon, infrapatellar tendon, superficial infrapatellar bursa, prepatellar bursa & pes anserine bursa

Zone 2 (Medial Aspect): medial meniscus, medial collateral ligament, sartorious, gracilis & semitendinosus

Zone 3 (Lateral Aspect): lateral meniscus, lateral collateral ligament, anterior superior tibiofibular ligament, biceps femoris muscle/tendon, iliotibial tract, common peroneal nerve.

Zone 4 (Posterior Aspect): popliteal fossa, postrerior tibial nerve, popliteal vein, popliteal artery & gastrocnemius muscle

Range of Motion 1,5:

AROM: flexion, extension, internal rotation & external rotation

PROM: flexion (0–135°), extension (0°), internal rotation (10°) & external rotation (10°)

RROM: flexion, extension, internal rotation & external rotation

Neurovascular Exam

Manual Muscle Testing  2:

Gastrocnemius, Popliteus, Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranousus, Quadriceps Femoris, Sartorius, Gracilis, Tensor Fascia Latae

Special Tests  3,7:

Brush, Ballotable Patella, Valgus Stress, Varus Stress, Lachman's, Anterior Drawer, "Posterior" Lachman's, Posterior Tibial Sag, Quad Activating, Slocum Drawer (Anterolateral Rotatory Instability), Slocum Drawer (Anteromedial Rotatory Instability), Lateral Pivot Shift, Hughston External Rotation Recurvatum, McMurray's, Bounce Home, Apley's Compression, Apley's Distraction, Wilson's, Ober's, Noble's Compression, Patellar Apprehension, Q–Angle, Medial/Lateral Patellar Glide, Clark's Sign, Stutter, Hughston's Plica


Identifies examiner's impression of injury & potientally complicating factors based on subjective & objective information


Explains examiner's goals as well as how the examiner intends on meeting these goals through initial managstrongent, treatment, rehabilitation