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Minnesota State University, Mankato
Minnesota State University, Mankato

Elbow Evaluation Module

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Determine 6: activity, MOI, location of pain, type of pain, severity of pain, onset of pain, unusual sounds/ sensations, actions that increase & decrease pain, S/S, change in S/S over time, prior injury/ surgery, family history & general medical health


Inspection 1,6:

General: swelling, discoloration, deformity, muscle symmetry/atrophy, symmetry of head and arm while standing & walking

Skin: discoloration, open wounds, scars & skin infections

Anterior View: carrying angle & cubital fossa

Lateral View: lateral epicondyle, alignment, cubital recurvatum, extension lag & extensor muscle mass

Medial View: medial epicondyle & flexor muscle mass

Posterior View: bony alignment, olecranon process & olecranon bursa

Elbow Palpation Rollover: using internet explorer rollover the images to trace some anatomy of the elbow

Bony Palpation 1: medial epicondyle, medial supracondylar line of humerus, olecranon, ulnar border, olecranon fossa, lateral epicondyle, lateral supracondylar line of humerus & radial head

Soft Tissue Palpation 1:

Zone 1 (Medial Aspect): ulnar nerve, wrist flexor–pronator muscle group (pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus & flexor carpi ulnaris), medial collateral ligament, supracondylar lymph nodes

Zone 2 (Posterior Aspect): olecranon bursa, triceps

Zone 3 (Lateral Aspect): wrist extensors "mobile wad of three" (brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus & extensor carpi radialis brevis), lateral collateral ligament & annular ligament

Zone 4 (Anterior Aspect): cubital fossa ( biceps tendon, brachial artery, median nerve & musculocutaneous nerve)

Range of Motion 1,5:

AROM: extension (0–5°), flexion (135°+), supination (90°) & pronation (90°)

PROM: extension, flexion, supination & pronation

RROM: extension, flexion, supination & pronation

Upper Extrstrongity Neurologic & Circulatory Examination 1,5:

Dermatomes: test sensation over the sensory distribution of each nerve root, this is done by having the patient close their eyes & distinguish a sharp stimulus from a dull stimilus


Reflex Testing:

Peripheral Nerve Distributions:


Manual Muscle Testing 2:

Biceps Brachii, Brachialis, Triceps Brachii, Anconeus, Palmaris Longus, Extensor Digitorum, Flexor Digitorum Superficialis, Flexor Digitorum Profundus, Flexor Carpi Radialis, Flexor Capri Ulnaris, Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus, Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis, Extensor Carpi Ulnaris, Pronator Teres, Pronator Quadratus, Supinator, Brachioradialis

Special Tests  3,7:

Lateral Epicondylitis/Resistive Tennis Elbow/Cozen's, Lateral Epicondylitis/Resistive Tennis Elbow, Lateral Epicondylitis/Passive Tennis Elbow, Medial Epicondylitis/Golfer's Elbow, Elbow Flexion, Varus Stress, Valgus Stress, Tinel's Sign, Pinch Grip, Pronator Teres Syndrome


Identifies examiner's impression of injury & potientally complicating factors based on subjective & objective information


Explains examiner's goals as well as how the examiner intends on meeting these goals through initial managstrongent, treatment, rehabilitation